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The 1930s: Nazis Parading on Main Street
Part 6: The Pro-Nazis of the 1930s

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  After the fall of France, a speech by Lindbergh aroused the fiery Secretary of Interior, Harold Ickles to form his own investigation committee. Ickles coordinated a private investigation, exposing Nazi propaganda. This group was headed by T.H. Tetens, also the author of two of the books cited in the bibliography. The three-man task force soon presented Ickles with shocking evidence. The Nazis in Germany were spending money on behalf of far right groups within the United States. Recipients of the German funds included the Christian Mobilizers, the Silver Shirts, Father Coughlin and others. Ickles presented the evidence to the attorney general and in the next year such groups found themselves subjects of investigations. FDR knew of Ickles plan and encouraged selective leaks to the media and to the FBI.116
 

George Eggleston provides a good example of far right groups in America receiving aid from the Nazis. In 1941, Eggleston began publishing Scribner’s Commentator, a mass circulated magazine. The magazine was secretly subsidized from the German Embassy.

Eggleston had access to laundered funds from the estate of the Charles Payson, a millionaire admirer of Lindbergh.  Eggleston located his publishing headquarters at Lake Geneva, NY. There he received instructions from Germany via shortwave radio for a second publication he undertook, The Herald. The Herald was even more pro Nazi and smacked of Goebbels like propaganda. Thomsen, charge d affaires of the German Embassy was impressed with the Herald and strived to place it in the hands of American servicemen.118

Following the bombing of Pearl on December 12, 1941 the American First Committee officially disbanded. However, on December 17, 1941 meeting in the home of Sibley Webster, a wealthy Wall Street broker a number of key American First members including Charles Lindbergh reformed under the new name Americans for Peace. The following quote from that meeting came from Horace Haase a former American Firster leaves no doubt about the future activities of those gathered.

"It is obviously necessary for the leaders of the America First like Wood and Webster to keep quiet. But the organization should not be destroyed. I have never been in the limelight and have nothing to lose. I can remain active in a quiet way. I should like to offer to keep the files. We must get ready for the next attack which must be made upon this communistic administration." 41

Nor was Haase alone in his sentiments. Four days after the bombing of Pearl the National Copperheads a west coast group closely associated with the American First Committee met in Los Angles. Ellis Jones appearing before the meeting stated:

< "The Japanese have a right to Hawaii. I would rather be in this war on the side of Germany than on the side of the British."42

Thus, began the battle for the minds of the people as similar statements along with the often-repeated cry for the impeachment of Roosevelt were repeated across America. Many of the followers, sensibilities firmly offended, deserted the pro-fascist groups in droves. However, the hard core fascists and their leaders simply began a vicious whispering campaign meant to destroy the morale of both the soldiers and the public. Such comments as: " Our armed forces are weak, The cost of the war will bankrupt the nation, The Chinese and British will make a separate peace with Japan and Germany, Stalin is getting too strong, and Bolshevism will sweep over Europe" were often overheard and repeated in this campaign for the people’s minds.

The pro-fascist newspaper chains went into overdrive after the bombing of Pearl as the following quotes indicate:

" This great war seems to be in the hands of inexperienced civilians who have proven uniformly unsuccessful in managing the country’s affairs in time of
peace, and are now displaying a more dangerous incompetence in time of war" Hearst’s New York Journal-American March 17, 1942.

"Of course Russia is not a full partner of the United Nations. She is a semi-partner of the Axis." Hearst’s New York Journal-American March 17,1942"60

Starting in February 1942 the pro-Nazis had their hopes dashed. There was no panic in America just anger directed at the Axis nations and their conspirators and fifth column agents inside the country. Beginning in February several unregistered agents for Germany were arrested and sent to prison, the most notable being Laura Ingalls. By April, Father Coughlin’s Social Justice and William Pelly’s The Galilean newsletters were banned from the mail due to their seditious content. Special grand juries were being convened across America to investigate propaganda and seditious acts.

The leaders of many of the pro-fascist groups simply went underground and began a nasty whispering campaign in the hopes of destroying the morale of both the soldiers and the public. The whispering campaign was not unlike the one that the Republican leadership unleashed against Senator John McCain in his bid for the presidential nomination in 2000 at the urging of the George Bush Jr. campaign. The rumors viciously attacked McCain for a bad temper and suggested that the former war hero was mentally unfit due to his capture by North Vietnam. Some of the attacks went so far as to claim McCain was a Manchurian candidate of his former captors. The attack on McCain serves to remind us how effective these whispering campaigns can be.

The opposition to the war came to a climax on July 23, 1942 when the Department of Justice indicted twenty-seven men and one woman for sedition. 43 The entire legal process was poorly managed and badly bungled. Some were found guilty and sentenced to jail terms such as Pelly (in another trial) others such as Dilling were found innocent. 44 A review of the list of those indicted reveals that none of the real leaders or financial backers were indicted. Instead, those indicted were rather low level leaders or nothing more than noisy gadflies. The only trial that ever charged any of the real leaders was the previously mentioned trial of the Chicago Tribune. After sixty years only a few of the names of those indicted warrant more than a footnote in history.

One of those indicted, William Dudley Pelly and his group, the Silver Shirts warrants a closer look in studying the evolution of native fascism in the United States. Pelly founded the Silver Shirts on January 31, 1933 in Asheville, North Carolina the day Hitler took power in Germany describing the group as a Christian militia. Throughout the 30s and up until Pelly's indictment for sedition, the Silver Shirts were one of the largest pro-Nazi groups and one of the more violent. Pelly was the son of a Methodist minister who believed that Jews were the children of Satan.47 His intense hate of Jews came from when he was a missionary traveling with the American Expedition Force in Russia during the last phase of the WWI. There, he learned from the White Russians a bitter hatred for the Jews. This hatred was later reinforced when Pelly was fired as a screenwriter for Hollywood moguls.

Due to their extreme racist and anti-Semitic views, the Silver Shirts became popular in areas of the country where the Klan was strong in the 1920s. They were particularly strong in the Pacific Northwest and largely took over the void left after the Klan split apart in Oregon and Washington in the 1920s. The Silver Shirts were openly pro-Hitler and formed alliances with both the American Bund and the Klan.

If it were not for their lingering influence on the evolution of fascist groups in America, they would be as forgettable as any of the other 700 plus fascist groups from the 1930s. However, many of today's far right groups can trace their ancestry directly to the Silver Shirts. The Posse Comitatus’ founder Henry Lamont Beach was a leader of the Silver Shirts in Oregon. Likewise, Richard Butler the founder of the Aryan Nations in Hayden Lake, Idaho was also a Silver Shirter as well as a former Klansmen. 45 Here we have direct links between today's right wing and the past fascists groups of the 30s. Butler still uses the Nazi salute at Hayden Lake years after the end of the war.55

Gerald L. K. Smith one of the founders of today’s Christian Identity religion was perhaps the most influential former Silver Shirt member as the Identity religion provides the common bond among many of the right wing extremist groups today. 46 It is the religion that is common to the Posse, the Aryan nations and many of the militias and Klan groups.

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It is the intolerant and blinding hatred of minorities among the religious fundamentalists that binds the fascists groups of the 1930s to today's right wing extremist groups. Much of the hate today can be directly traced back to those 1930’s ministries of hate. The roots of today’s tele-evangelists can be traced back to the 1930s. The media may have changed from radio to television but the format is unchanged from the style of format Father Coughlin used in the 1930s. His radio broadcasts reached millions, as did his followers in his organizations. His sermons were filled with virulent hate of Jews, communism and Roosevelt. Pat Robertson’s, Jerry Falwell’s or any of the other teleevangelists programs follow the same format today. Only today they carefully disguise their hate of Jews and substitute hate of gays, welfare (read that as the poor), abortion, unions or any other and liberal program designed to help the poor or working man and of course Clinton has replaced Roosevelt as an object for their scorn.

Coughlin was probably the most influential of all the preachers during the 30s. He certainly commanded the largest following, and was something of a central figure or unifier of the various groups. One such group of followers was the Christian Crusade which had as its goal the establishment of a so-called Christian government modeled upon the corporate-clerical state of Franco.48 Other groups associated with Coughlin were the Christian Front which was his primary group, many of the various mothers movement groups as well as the American First Committee. Politically Coughlin opposed any aid to Britain, the draft and any bill that would be a deterrent to Germany and Hitler. Often times his opposition bordered on sedition, although he was never charged with sedition. His ministry of hate, for the most part, ended with the bombing of Pearl Harbor.

Three other ministers of hate from this period deserve special mention before moving on Gerald Smith, Gerald Winrod and Wesley Swift. Swift had direct connections with the Nazis and is another who is credited with leading the Identity movement. He also was a member of the Klan. Billy Hargis, who later gained fame in the 1950s and early 60s, was an associate of Winrod.

Both Winrod and Smith were disciples of Coughlin. Winrod came close to winning election as a senator from Kansas and at the time was known as the Jayhawk Nazi. Smith was closely associated with Huey Long and after his death attempted to take over Long’s political machine. Smith was also a member of Pelly’s Silver Shirts.

Although Coughlin was the most widely recognized religious figure from the Nazi movement during the 30s, it is arguable that Gerald K. Smith was the most influential in the long term. Smith was well known in the 1930s, but he did not have as large of a following as Coughlin. However, Smith’s influence can be seen in many of the right wing groups today. The great unifier among the right wing groups today is religion just as it was in the 30s. Many of today’s right wing extremist groups believe in the Identity religion. A religion based on hate of Jews. Smith is largely credited in founding the Identity religion. Thus, Smith's influence extends to today while Coughlin’s died with the bombing of Pearl even though Coughlin had more followers at the time.

Smith was an assistant in Coughlin's Christian Front and an associate of Henry Ford. He was an ordained minister in the Disciples of Christ Church and was a virulent anti-Semitic who gained notoriety by staging a Passion Play in Louisiana. But unlike Coughlin, who disappeared from the national scene by the end of the war, Smith went on to found the Christian Defense League (CDF), somewhat of an survivalist offshoot of the Klan. The CDF's publication "The Cross and the Flag" was among the first pamphlets to use the Identity religion.

One of Smith's assistants in his Christian Anti-Communist Crusade was Dr. Wesley Swift, who is widely regarded as one of the icons of the Identity religion today. Swift was one of the first to assert a need for paramilitary groups, and formed the racist California Rangers group, a core group from the Minutemen. Swift also founded the Church of Jesus Christ-Christian in 1946. Later after Butler and Swift had a falling out. Butler then moved his ministry of hate to Hayden Lake, Idaho where it is forms the basis of the many varied racist groups there such as the Aryan Nations and the former Order.

An associate of Swift's was Colonel William Gale. Gale ran for Governor of California in 1958 on a pro-segregation ticket and was a former aide to Douglas MacArthur. He also founded a church based on the Identity religion, the Ministry of Christ. Gale was also the founder of the Posse Comitatus. Both Swift and Gale recruited Richard Butler, the head of the Aryan Nations.49

This clear line of succession or evolution from Smith to the present day leaves Smith as more influential than Coughlin. This line of succession also establishes an irrefutable link between the pro-Nazis of the 1930s and the far right groups of today.

Least the reader assume that it was only the fringe religious hacks that were involved with the Nazis, there is the example of the Southern Baptist minister, M. E.Dodd. Dodd was a resident of Louisiana and made headlines for attending the 1934 Baptist World Convention in Berlin. Dodd was an extreme racist--- even more so than Smith--- and praised the Nazis. Dodd justified Hitler's gestapo tactics against the Jews by linking Jews with communism. 50 He considered the Jews in Germany to be outside agitators similar to the racial agitators in the south. To be fair some Baptists did denounce the Nazis, but the Alabama Baptists followed Dodd's views.

Dodd was not merely a minister in the Baptist church. He was one of the leaders of the Southern Baptists. He was also the first Baptist minister to deliver a sermon over the air waves on January 5, 1941.51 With people like Dodd holding leading positions of authority in the largest church in the south, it should not be surprising that until the 1960s the churches were just another instrument of segregation. Nor can one help but wonder how much of Dodd’s anti-Semitism is still with the Southern Baptists especially in light of the number of Baptist that attended the Fourth Annual Super Conference of Christian Israel Churches in 1997. Pastor Everett Ramsey of the Faith Baptist Church of Houston, Missouri hosted this conference promoting the Identity religion.68 This close association of Southern Baptist with the Identity religion---with its roots grounded in fascism--- has led to the recent announcement of the Baptists to try and convert Jews to Christianity.52 Jewish leaders have described the proscribed guidelines of this Southern Baptist conversion as insulting and condescending.

Many of the far right groups today are trying to distance themselves from their racist roots or at least cloak them from public view in order to attract followers. However, the common bond between many of these far right groups remains the Identity religion.

There are other sources as well for today’s racism, including the alliance between the Klan and the American Bund in the 1930s. Some have attributed this alliance with the increase in violence in the Identity movement. Nevertheless, for the most part the Klan is a mere shadow of its former self. One should not dismiss the threat posed by klansmen but from a political point of view, they remain ineffectual. A Galllup Poll released on July 27, 1970 showed that only 3% of the public viewed the Klan in a favorable light while 75% regarded the Klan in a highly unfavorable light. 53 The favorable number has probably risen slightly with the increase in right wing extremist groups during the 1980s but for most Americans the Klan is still a pariah.

A greater source of concern in the opinion of the writer is the Pioneer Fund, a group that had direct links with Hitler and the Nazis. Wickliffe Draper, an heir to the giant textile machinery manufacture, the Draper Corporation, established the Pioneer Fund in 1937. Draper was an extreme racist and a staunch anti-unionist as early as the days of the Sacco and Vanzetti trial. Other objects of his hatred were the United Nations, John Kennedy, anyone on the Nye committee and liberals. His hatred for those on the Nye committee for attempting to charge the du Ponts with war profiteering led to his deliberate persecution of Alger Hiss between 1948 and 1951.

Draper and his associate Harry Laughlin created "The Model Eugenics Laws in America" which Hitler used to write the Nuremberg Laws. Laughlin received an honorary degree from the University of Hiedelburg in 1936; both men had other direct ties to Hitler and Nazi Germany. Draper and Laughlin were the source of the laws in the United States for the involuntary sterilization of institutionalized Americans in 24 states that adopted such laws that led directly to the sterilization of over 75,000 Americans.54

However, the real danger of the Pioneer Fund is in the amount of political clout and financial backing it has to propagate racism ever since it was founded. Among the original directors of the Pioneer Fund who endorsed the policies of eugenics was John Marshall Harlan II, who was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1957.55

On September 12, 1963, the Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission received a notification from Morgan Guaranty Trust Co that an anonymous gift of one hundred thousand dollars had been granted with the condition that the source of the gift had to be kept confidential. The money was to be used in the fight against civil rights. Additional money was forth coming from the Pioneer Fund and was used in a broadside attack on civil rights. 55 The Pioneer Fund has also been linked as the source of funds for anti-bussing programs.58

After thirty years it is hard to find direct links in any political group, people die and ideology evolves, and at best, one can only show an evolving linkage. However, in this case, the linkage is direct with Draper still expounding his racist Nazi views. Once again, we see how the elite supported the fascist cause and can shape public opinion through propaganda.

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The Pioneer Fund is also the source of much of the funding for book titles that like the Bell Curve is nothing more than racist drivel cloaked under the disguise of science. The Bell Curve is inherently false and used much of the work provided by the Pioneer Fund. One of the chief beneficiaries of the Pioneer Fund has been Roger Pearson, thereby linking the Liberty Lobby with the Pioneer Fund. The Pioneer Fund was also one of the driving forces behind Proposition 187 the anti-alien ballot measure on the 1994 California ballot. Presently the following noteworthy Republican politicians have been linked with the Pioneer Fund: Jesse Helms 56 and Steve Forbes.57

By using the Pioneer Fund as an example we have establish a direct link between a Nazi group of the thirties to both past and present political connections that have resulted in some dark moments for the nation and its legal system.

The Pioneer Fund was established on racial hate and it remains an institution based on hate. An example of the extreme hate of these groups from the 30s comes from a member of the Mother’s Movement, Lucinda Benge. Benge charged that white sailors were given blood transfusions from Blacks and Orientals, making them ill and likely to father Black or Yellow children.59

Such a statement is ridiculous but it does reveal the rabid hate of these groups. For those readers that think we have moved beyond such rabid hate, the writer would like to remind the reader that he had a friend in college during the late 60s early 70s whose father was delaying an operation. The reason for the delay was that he had a previous operation and did not recover as quickly as he had thought he should and he blamed in on that nigger blood they had gave him. Such bigotry still remains strong throughout the midwest, in a later chapter the anti-Jewish sentiment will be detailed in the rise of the Posse Comitatus in the 1980s.

Perhaps, the most influential right wing political group today was formed from the remnants of three fascist groups of the 1930s. The American Security Council (ACS) was formed in 1955 from members of the pro fascists groups: the American First Committee, the American Vigilante Intelligence Federation, and the American Coalition of Patriotic Societies.62 The American Vigilante organization was the product of the notorious pro-fascist Harry Jung while the Coalition of Patriotic Societies was closely associated with eugenics and the previously mentioned Pioneer Fund. The American Vigilant Intelligence Foundation was founded in 1927. The foundation collected large sums of money from such corporate donors as Sears, A.B. Dick, International Harvester and First National Bank.114 The person most responsible for establishing both the American First Committee and the ACS was the reactionary head of Sears and Roebuck, retired General Robert Wood.

The American First Committee began as the idea of a young Yale College student, Douglas Stuart Jr. Stuart was the son of the first vice president of Quaker Oats. The reader should note the case of the nut never dropping far from the tree, as Quaker Oats was a later member of the ACS. Nor was the American First Committee the only group with connections to Quaker Oats. One of the founding members of the Church League was a vice president of Quaker Oats. Stuart attended the 1940 Republican Party Convention and consorted with the isolationists.

Charles Lindbergh had already shown and interest in Stuart’s idea of uniting all opposition to the forth-coming war under one umbrella group. With Lindbergh's advice, the young Stuart sought out the aid of General Robert E. Wood. Wood was a strong isolationists and apologist for Hitler. Soon afterwards, the American First Committee was incorporated, with Wood at the helm. William H. Regnery was one of the signers of the incorporation. 63

The American First group was underwritten by business leaders. John Foster Dulles wrote the charter. Eight business leaders supplied over $100,000. Included in this list of business leaders was H. Smith Richardson. Both the Regnery Publishing Company and the Smith Richardson Foundation played prominent roles in the effort to derail the Clinton administration.

William R. Castle a former under secretary of state under Hoover was also instrumental in the launching of the American First Committee. Castle was a scion of a wealthy family from Hawaii. He believed that only the wealthy should be allowed to serve in the diplomat corp. Castle opposed sending any aid to China despite Japanese aggression in China. Former President Hoover remained a secret member of the committee.

The American First Committee was not founded originally to help the Nazis but under the direction of General Wood the American First Committee soon allowed admission of any pro-Nazi including Dudley's Silver Shirts and Klan members and became the mouth piece of pro-Nazi propaganda. Even Laura Ingalls the Nazi agent was a member. Ralph Townsend was another member and held a leadership role in San Francisco, he was also a paid agent of the Japanese government. Garland Alderman also held a leadership role in Michigan, and was a member of the Nazi inspired National Workers League. He was later indicted on sedition charges. Dellmore Lessard was the Oregon State Chairmen of the American First Committee but was forced to resigned after it was disclosed he had accepted funds from the Nazi controlled Kyffhaeuserbund.64 The American First Committee was successful in bringing many of the pro-fascist groups under one umbrella group.89

The American First group grew quickly thanks in part to the wealthy founders and slick promotion. The group quickly reached around 800,000 members. The group benefited from the publicity operations of Quaker Oats, Sears, and Hormel. Due to the ties of Hormel the large advertising firm of Batton, Barton, Durstine and Osborn also contributed to promoting the group. Former President Herbert Hoover was a secret member of the group. FDR had his own sources of intelligence about the American First group. One such source was Walter Winchell. From Winchell, Roosevelt learned that Thomas Dewey was negotiating to take over the group. However, with Dewey’s presidential ambitions he backed off and distanced himself somewhat.117

With the following background on the American First Committee it would be surprising any knowledgeable person would defend it as a patriot organization. However, in a venom laced diatribe as a response to the former mayor of New York, Ed Koch perennial presidential candidate Pat Buchanan did just that. Buchanan has other embarrassing ties to fascism as well. In the response, Buchanan listed four names that had signed a recruiting poster for the American First at Yale Law School: Bob Stuart, Eugene Loche, Potter Stewart and Gerald Ford. He also listed three additional members Senator Peter Dominick, Sargent Shriver and Kingman Brewester.65 Brewester later became president of Yale, a university that has close ties with employing former Nazi war criminals. While president of Yale, Brewester appointed Tracy Barnes as a special assistant in charge of community relations. Barnes was an operations officer for the OSS during the war and resigned a high level CIA position to accept the offer. Barnes was the CIA officer that organized the overthrow of the Arbenz government of Guatemala and selected E. Howard Hunt as his political officer for the team.66

William Regnery was also one of the founders of the American Security Council, he was later replaced by his son Henry. Regnery and two other isolationists began broadcasting Human Events and in 1947 started the Regnery publishing business. Interesting enough the first two titles published by Regnery were critical of the Nuremberg Trials. The third book Regnery published was another pro-Nazi book attacking the allies air campaign. In 1954, Regnery published two books for the John Birch Society. He was also the publisher behind Buckley’s God and Man at Yale. In light of the publishing of the pro-Nazi books, it is interesting to note that Regnery Publishing was subsidized by the CIA according to Howard Hunt. The reader is reminded to remember this point in a later chapter concerning the CIA and its involvement with Nazi war criminals.

Henry Regnery along with Bunker Hunt funded Western Goals an organization that is now dead. Western Goals was another group that reportedly compiled list of people they deemed subversive. In 1986, Reagan appointed Alfred Regnery to help dismantle the Justice Department's Office of Juvenile Justice.67 In the 1990s the Regnery publishing house has been the publisher of numerous venomous smears (I would use the word "books" but that would be a lie by any measure) attacking President Clinton. Once again, a direct linkage between the past pro-Nazi groups of the 1930s and today’s right wing has been fully established.

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The American Security Council had a large degree of influence on the Reagan administration as well as many of the more hotly debated issues between the 1950s and the 1980s. A more detailed look of the ACS will follow in later chapters. In the brief passages in this chapter it has been established that the ACS rose from the remnants of three pro-fascists groups of the thirties and pursued a path of promoting the fascist agenda of extreme anti-unionism and anti-liberalism which will be made clear in the later chapters.

It now has been over seventy years since 1930, yet few Americans know about the concerted effort of the Nazis to create domestic turmoil within the United States. Fewer Americans know about the fascist plot to overthrow Roosevelt. Even fewer Americans have an understanding how the indigenous fascist groups of the 1930s still exert a considerable effect on our daily life and the political atmosphere.

Hitler’s dream of uniting all German-Americans under the fascist American Bund was a resounding failure as most German-Americans chose to remain loyal to their adopted country. Hitler’s grandiose plan of creating widespread racial discord met with only limited success. Both the Detroit, Michigan and the Beaumont, Texas race riots were inflamed by the Nazi affiliated Klan and other fascist groups and caused considerable delay in the production of war material. Hitler must have been overjoyed upon seeing one of the major political parties, the Republicans to conduct vicious anti-Semitic campaigns in several states.

In this brief look at the fascists in the 1930s less than twenty of the over 700 fascist groups that were operative during the 30s have been covered in any depth. Many of these groups received money directly from Nazi Germany and from the same wealthy industrialists that were knowingly building the Third Reich’s war machine. Yet, it has been clearly established that these groups exerted a large political influence during their brief existence.

An influence, that extends to this day in the form of anti-labor laws such as the right to work laws and the Taft-Hartley Act. Both have direct connections with fascism, the right to work laws were passed largely due to the lobbying efforts of the fascist group Christian American. Republican House member Fred Harley was an open advocate of Japan and Germany in the halls of congress right up to the moment Pearl Harbor was bombed. Today the United States is the only major western governments that outlaws a general strike and as such is in violation of UN policy on unions and labor. General strikes are commonplace in France and the rest of Europe. This extreme anti-labor agenda is still readily apparent today in the Republican Party.

Hitler’s greatest success in creating domestic unrest came in the halls of congress. Many of the conservative members of congress from both parties hiding under the banner of isolationism or pacifism were openly pro-fascist and were influential in delaying war production and aid to the allies. Several of these pro-Nazi congressmen received funds directly from Nazi Germany others indirectly through Viereck and Flanders Hall, the notorious Nazi publishing house in the form of royalties for books.

Additionally clear evidence of collusion between the high-ranking officials of the Republican Party and known Nazi agitators in every election year throughout the 1930s has been established.

As John Rogge learned in Europe, the Nazi infiltration was much more extensive than he had believe as prosecuting attorney for the sedition trial. He learned that an ex-president, Herbert Hoover a former vice president of FDR, a United States Senator and other high ranking officials had conspired with the Nazis to prevent the election of Roosevelt in 1940.

As Rogge wrote his final report, he knew that the report would never be published. The fascist industrialists and politicians were too powerful to be exposed. They would be protected. Rogge continued writing his report not suspecting that his report would end his career. However, Rogge would suffer the same fate as the man he replaced in the sedition trials, William Maloney. He would be dismissed for uncovering the truth about American fascists. Only a few cries of protest were ever voiced in the press over the dismissal of Rogge. Even worst to further discredit the relentless Nazi hunter the fascist element sought to besmirch his brilliant and honorable career by labeling him as a communist.

The good General Smedley Butler suffered the same fate earlier in revealing the fascist plot against Roosevelt. The general was labeled a crackpot in the press for saving the country from fascism. This pattern of dismissal of those that opposed fascism strongly was repeated time and again. By 1943 with the Nazis clearly defeated on the battlefields of Europe, it would reach epidemic proportions. Meanwhile the careers of those that aided the Nazis steadily advanced. The following chapter will reveal how this was an integral part of the change in tactics of the native fascist once it was clearly the Nazis was loosing the war.

A further exhaustive review of all the fascist groups of the 1930s is beyond the scope of any single book let alone a single chapter. Further review of these groups would only confirm the findings so far, and exposed additional ones and will be left for other writers. In this brief chapter, several roots of the far right wing groups have been traced back to the fascist groups of the 1930s. Most notably the American Security Council, which exerted a large influence on the Reagan administration, was formed from the remnants of three pro-Nazi groups. Other groups such as the Aryan Nations and the Posse Comitatus likewise have their roots grounded in the fascist of the 1930s.

Some of the connections that have been exposed in this chapter maybe more embarrassing than an ideological tie. Such maybe the case with the link between Gerald Ford and the American First group. Others such as Regnery confirmed his fascist ideology by his subsequent actions. Nor does the inclusion of a group imply that all members of that group are fascist ideologues, it simply means that a significant element of that group are either fascist or predisposed to fascist ideology.

One of the greatest deterrents to expose other connections lies in the fact that much of the evidence still lies in government vaults classified as secret. The efforts of Congresswoman Elizabeth Holtzman to have all documents from that era open to public scrutiny should be applauded. As more and more of those documents are available it only confirms how vast the fascist network was and how justice was subverted. The Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act was passed in 1998. In the three years since passage, some three million pages of previous classified documents have been released.

Among the documents released in April 2001 were those devoted to Emil Augsburg, a member of the Wannsee Institute, the former Nazi think tank that plotted the massacre of the Jews. Augsburg became part of the Gehlen network, a network of former Nazis employed by the CIA following the war. Augsburg should have been tried as a war criminal. With each release of additional files a clearer picture will emerge of the relationship between the CIA and the Nazis.90

As to what these documents may reveal is best summed up with the following quote from the Nazi War Criminals Interagency Working Group, a site maintained by the United States government.

"Clearly the information contained in these still classified files will prove to be embarrassing to our government. In the name of containing Soviet aggression, many hard-core, high ranking Nazis were welcomed into the camp of the Western Allies. Men like *General Adolf Heusinger,* who served as Deputy Chief of Operations and Planning for the entire German armed forces. A man so close to Hitler that he was literally standing next to him on July 20, 1944 when the room they were in blew up in what ultimately proved to be a failed assassination attempt. * Nevertheless, Heusinger was welcomed by the western allies after the surrender and rose to new heights in the postwar period when, on April 1, 1961, his appointment as Chairman of the Permanent Military Committee of "NATO" with an office in the Pentagon was announced by none other than President John F. Kennedy. "91

The second deterrent comes from the media itself both the popular broadcasting networks and the publishers and their lack of enthusiasm to out right sabotage of efforts to expose the connections. With the advent of the Internet the propaganda value of the popular media and press has been diminished. However, this is a two-edge sword the far right groups have been quick to adapt to new technologies. Nevertheless, even now there are those that advocate censorship of the net. Help fight to keep the net free of both government censorship and that of private censorship.

The reader should also keep in mind that Hitler didn't rise to power in a revolution. The notorious fascist Huey Long once remarked that the U. S. would be the only country that elected a fascist government. Many of the points established in this chapter will be expanded in later chapters detailing the gradual loss of freedoms in the ever relentless march of creeping fascism and corporate rule.