The world stood aghast in the spring of 1941 at the new terror and horror unleashed by the Nazis against Yugoslavia. Hitler was enraged that the people of Yugoslavia had overthrown his quisling government and had issued Military Directive 25 for and immediate invasion. Belgrade had been reduced to ruble by the Nazi dive-bombers and anything left moving was subject to strafing. The Yugoslavian government in exile immediately petitioned the United Nations war crimes commission to include the bombing of civilian centers as a war crime to no avail. The war crimes commission was mute on the matter.
By the end of the war, most of Europe had been reduced to rubble like Belgrade. This wholesale destruction came not at the hands of the Nazi but at the hands of the allied air command. Yes, the Nazi war machine had been destroyed on the battlefield but at what cost? Estimates in Germany ranged as high as 80% of all housing units had been destroyed. Dresden was simply erased in a massive firestorm by the bombing campaign. Estimates of civilian deaths in Dresden range as high as 70,000. However, the effect of the air campaign against industrial centers and munitions makers presents a different view. The Nazi war machine was producing more planes, tanks, trucks, etc at the end of the war than in 1941. Overall, production of munitions at the end of the war was estimated to be at roughly 80% of capacity. The Ford plant at Cologne stood untouched at the outskirts of a city that laid in ruins. It was running at 70% of capacity when the city fell to allied hands. Ironically the reduced capacity of the Ford plant was due to secondary effects of the bombing campaign--- a shortage of materials caused by the bombing of transportation centers and not from any bomb damage.
Throughout Europe and in Germany particularly the scene was much the same. Large industrial plants stood unscathed amid a field of rubble especially those plants that had connections to American firms as the Ford plant at Cologne. In fact the I.G. Farben building in Berlin was untouched and used by the allies as a command center. In order to understand such a discrepancy a brief look at target selection is needed.
The reader needs to be reminded that during WWII there were no laser-guided bombs that could be dropped through exhaust vents. Precision bombing was still in its infancy. The RAF abandoned any attempt of precision bombing when they switched to night time bombing because of heavy looses in the day. The massive raids on Cologne were typical for the area bombing by the RAF where a whole city was targeted. The US airforce still used precision bombing in the days. The US adopted the standard of seventy percent of the bombs falling within a thousand-foot circle as precision bombing. The standard was reached in only one week of the war. Often times weather conditions or the requirement to fly in formation prevented the bombs from some aircraft to reach the intended target.
At the cabinet level, the air force was under the control of Secretary of War Stimpson. The Skull and Bones member was one of leaders for an easy peace with Germany at the end of the war. Roosevelt allowed Stimpson to choose his own staff. He chose John McCloy to act as assistant Secretary in charge of intelligence, civilian affairs and general troubleshooter. Stimpson placed Robert Lovett as assistant secretary of war for air. Both McCloy and Lovett had backgrounds from Wall Street. McCloy had been a former Wall Street lawyer and Lovett a partner and close friend of Prescott Bush at Brown Brothers and Harriman. It was Prescott that selected Lovett for membership in the Skull and Bones. Lovett was a wide-ranging advocate of terror bombing of population centers all of his life including during the Vietnam War.
In July 1941, department of war developed a plan for target selection that would be in line with the ABC agreement with Britain and with the general battle plan for potential war known as Rainbow 5. The ABC agreement called for a sustained air war against Germany. The plan developed was Air War Plans Division--Plan 1 or simply AWPD-1. The primary military objective of AWPD-1 was to defeat Germany by air power alone. If the plan failed in its primary objective then the plan called for preparing the way for a European invasion. AWPD-1 identified three vital targets within the Germany economy: electric power, transportation, and oil. It included a fourth intermediate target area the destruction of the Luftwaffe. AWPD-1 then included 154 targets to be destroyed in the first six months.
AWPD-1 was never implemented it was leaked to the press in the fall of 1941 along with the Rainbow 5 battle plan by Burton Wheeler a pro Nazi Senator. Both Rainbow 5 and AWPD-1 appeared in the Chicago Tribune and Washington Times-Herald. The Nazis quickly realized the importance of both documents. On Dec 12, 1941, Hitler issued Directive 39, which called for massing air defenses around key industrial centers. Four days later Hitler rescinded the directive. Early in 1942, AWPD-42 replaced AWPD-1. While very much similar to the preceding plan AWPD-42 placed the disruption of the electrical grid as thirteenth on the list. This reduction in priority of electric generating facilities was perhaps the largest failure of the air campaign. The analysts responsible for the reduction had concluded incorrectly that the German electrical grid had the ability to rapidly reroute power from one region to another when in fact Germany lack this ability. Any strike against power plants supplying industrial centers would have left those industrial centers idle for months.
AWPD-42 was hammered out by the committee of operations analysts (COA). COA was composed of industrialists, lawyers and various economists. The committed used several criteria in determining the suitability of the target. Essentially the committee looked for bottlenecks and weaknesses in the Nazi economy that could be exploited. The inclusion of industrialist is interesting in light of the tragic downgrading of electrical targets. A large segment of the German electrical industry was closely affiliated with two American firms through cartel agreements, GE and ITT. Plants owned by GE through its AEG subsidiary and ITT were only hit incidentally in area raids. The electrical plants that were bombed as targets were Brown Boveri and Siemenssatadt which were not connected with either GE or ITT. Although plants owned by GE such as the plant at Koppelsdorf, which manufactured radar, would have been a prime target
Along with the change to AWPD-42 came, a new bombing offensive was launched in 1942. In early 1943, the Point Blank Directive was approved. It called for around the clock bombing of Germany. The RAF was to continue to bomb cities at night while the USAF was to use daytime precision bombing on targets. The Point Blank included a permissive clause that allowed Bomber Command to continue with operations aimed at civilian morale and the general dislocation of the German economy. Shortly after the implementation of AWPD-42, the RAF launched a thousand bomber attack against Cologne. The meat grinder was now fully operational and civilian centers would be reduced to rubble. The 1943, Pointblank Directive would ease selecting civilian centers as targets. When the RAF bombed the Ford plant at Poissy in March 1942, photographs of the burning plant were published in American newspapers. The newspapers however, wished to protect one of their largest advertisers and failed to mention that the plant was owned by Ford. The Vichy government paid Ford 38 million francs in compensation. Once again the newspapers were discrete and failed to report the payment.
One member of the COA team was Guido R. Perera. Perera was a partner in Hutchins and Wheeler law firm in Boston before the war. He also served as trustee of the Massachusetts Investors Trust. During the war, Perera worked first worked on the legislative and administrative reorganization of the Army Air Corps. After which he served as deputy chairman of the Advisory Committee on Bombardment and as vice chairman of the Committee of Operations Analysts. In these positions, he oversaw the development of plans and target systems for the bombing of strategic industrial targets in Germany and Japan.
Of interest, here is Perera connections with Massachusetts Investors Trust. The trust was the first mutual fund in America. It was founded by Paul Mellon in the 1920s. One of the largest holdings of the trust was Boston Insurance Company. The present owners of the Bank of Boston, Fleet Financial are desperately trying to distance and deny any connections between Boston Insurance and the Bank of Boston as information linking the bank to the Nazis has surfaced. It appears that Boston Insurance was a product of the bank or the directors. One of the directors of Boston Insurance Co. was Erwin Pallavicini. He is described in the OSS file as an US-blacklisted Nazi collaborator who also served on the board of a German insurance firm in Argentina. The OSS documents list another director of Boston Insurance, Benjamin Nazar Anchorena as a Nazi collaborator. Newly declassified files outline the convoluted financial relationships that linked First National Bank of Boston interests with Hitler's financiers including Spanish and Mexican companies in business with Germany's Munich Re. The entire network involved around 230 German firms. Even as late as 1997, the identity of the owners of Boston Insurance remains unknown.
Quoting from an OSS report complied in 1943: "The Boston Insurance Company is still writing all kinds of insurance of blacklisted names, and they are placing this business in the London market," the OSS report said. That meant "the Boston," as the document referred to the insurance firm, was spreading cash and information within and between both the Allies and the Axis. The Boston is known to have American board members and stockholders, having been formed by interests affiliated with the First National Bank of Boston,"
The Bank of Boston was controlled by the Mellon and Rockefeller families. Both families were deeply involved in arming and supplying Hitler. The Mellon family through Alcoa had concluded several cartel agreements with I.G. Farben. With the necessity of vast amounts of electricity for the production of aluminum, could Perera been one of those responsible for downgrading the importance of eliminating the electrical companies in Germany? He certainly must have been aware of the Mellon –aluminum link and was closely associated with Mellons through Massachusetts Investors Trust. Without the complete records of the COA no solid conclusions can be reached.
However, Perera is not the only one from the COA with connections to the Wall Street money that built Hitler’s war machine. Arthur Roseborough a former Sullivan and Cromwell employee was assigned to the Air Force Intelligence in London during 1943. The Air Force Intelligence unit was created specifically to evaluate bombing damage and to recommend targets.
Perera and Rosebourgh fall into the groups of people employed by COA so we can conclude they were fairly typical of the group. Without additional files of COA, it is impossible to conclude the guilt or innocence of either Perera, Rosebourgh or of the entire staff of COA in protecting the investments of American industrialists and elitists. However, the undisputed fact remains 80% of the homes in Germany were destroyed while industrial production was only reduced by 20%. In fact much of the reduced production capacity came from the secondary effects of the bombing campaign such as lack of gasoline and a shortage of parts due to the disruption of the transportation system.
After the war, the bombing survey concluded that overall the bombing was ineffectual in destroying German munitions production. The massive bombing of the S&K ball bearing plant at best only delayed production temporary at a horrible lost of allied airmen and aircraft. A greater success of the bombing campaign was in the bombing of the Romanian oil fields. The shortage of gasoline in the Third Reich was acute and even limited the advanced of Germans in the Battle of the Bulge. However, Germany’s oil supplies was always limited and restricted. The survey concluded that the bombing was most successful in delaying deploying troops by bombing rail centers. Although the rail centers were quickly repaired, the delay was enough to give the edge to the allies on the battlefield.
As the world stands on the brink of another massive terror bombing all Europeans should be asking themselves if their family suffered losses in the terror bombing of WWII so the investments of Americans like the Bush family could be saved. This writer urges you to stand firm against this war. They have no proof of weapons of massive destruction. If they did, Britains lap dog Blair would not have found it necessary to plagiarize a twelve-year-old document. Moreover, Bush would not have found it necessary to censor the UN report by tearing out thousands of pages that implicated American companies in supplying Saddam. One of those companies was Haliburton while Vice President Cheney was CEO.
With all of junior’s saber rattling, Daddy Bush is already counting the gold. In a previous article, Gold Fillings, Auschwitz and George Bush the details of Bush family’s sordid connections to the Nazis and how they profited from WWII. Due to the increase in the price of gold due to the threat of war, the Bush family is once again counting the gold. In the last days of the Bush senior’s presidential term, George senior invoked an obscure 1872 statute to give a Canadian firm, Barrick Corp the right to mine $10 billion in gold from U.S. public lands. (U.S. taxpayers got a whopping $10,000 fee in return.) George senior then joined Barrick as a highly paid "international consultant," brokering deals with various dictators. Barrick reciprocated with big bucks for George junior's presidential run. Last year Junior dutifully approved Barrick's controversial acquisition of a major rival.
This is the way the Bush family makes millions. It takes the blood of thousands of innocence civilians. You can stop this war mongering for gold by opposing the war. This writer apologizes for the various wing nuts from the right including the rummy from defense that thinks Germany and France are “old European” and extends thanks for the aid you provided during our revolution. A special thanks is extended to the people of France for that elegant lady that gracefully guards the harbor of New York. I’m just damn sorry that the tin horn Nazi that stole the election and is the squatter in the Oval Office is too damn stupid to understand the meaning of the words inscribed on that monument. I’ll understand if France asks us return it, we are no longer a citadel of freedom rather we have became just another backwater third rate banana republic hell hole of repression and fascism.
For more about the Bush family Nazi connections see: Gold Fillings, Auswitz and George Bush
For more about fascism in America see: The Nazi Hydra